General Information

Ceramic tile can be made of shale, flint, clay or other minerals pressed or extruded into shapes and fired in a kiln. The firing temperature determines the strength of the tile and its moisture absorption properties.
The raw material, the size of the mineral particles, mixing and drying requirements, shapes and sizes, and firing variables all allow an infinite number of alternative styles, colors and price ranges.
Best uses are in areas where liquids, stains, sun, or sharp objects may attack the floor.
Wears very well in the heaviest traffic. Examples: kitchens, bathrooms, and entry areas.

Types of tile:

Glaze tile: Colored, opaque, or transparent finish fused to the body of the tile by the firing process.
Unglazed tile: no protective finish on top.
Quarry tile: Unglazed tile manufactured from clay or shale by extrusion.
Porcelain tile: Dense, impervious, fine-grained, and smooth. Made from fine-textured clay. The permanent color permeates the tile.
Terra Cotta tile: Made of red clay
Mosaic tile: Manufactured through a dust-pressed or plastic process, using porcelain or a natural clay composition.

Product Features
Consumer Benefits
Hard surface and sub-surface. Durable under all conditions of people traffic,
fixtures, and furniture. (The most compelling reason to buy tile.) But could crack under the weight of heavy machinery.
Resists abrasion and scuffing by heavy or sharp objects. Won't chip or crack
under normal residential and office conditions.
Non-combustible Completely fireproof.
Non-porous, glazed surface Moisture does not affect it. Tile cannot absorb
water, liquids, smoke, or odors. It won't stain, mildew, or burn. Therefore, ideal for kitchens and restrooms. Glazed tiles are
stain-proof. Non-glazed tiles are stain-resistant.
Emits no potentially harmful fumes. Use where conditions must be antiseptic, or air must be toxic-free. Fumes, smoke, soil or microorganisms cannot penetrate
the surface.
Color permanent, and sun-fade resistant Colors are permanent. They last longer in sunlight than colors in others floorings, though not permanently.
Non-porous surface doesn't change over years of wear. Easy maintenance - never needs waxing, buffing, or refinishing.
Will stand wear for many years. Save on frequent installations. Tile has a low long-term cost.
Practically unlimited designs, sizes and options. You can mix or match nearly any decor. It increases the value of the consumer's home.
It won't shrink or expand. Can be set where temperatures range from extreme
cold to extreme heat.


Q. "Tile is cold on my feet. "
A. Tile is thermal, so it takes on the temperature around it. It is cold only when the air above it is cool. Avoid this with scatter rugs.
Q. "The joints get dirty."
A Light-colored grout can absorb dirt and be hard to clean. Avoid this by using a , darker colored grout, or applying a grout sealant.
    Those eliminate the problem, even in heavy traffic areas.
Q. "The tile can't be repaired."
A. True. But a cracked or broken tile can be replaced relatively easily.

Performance Limitations with Tile
1. Certain glazed tiles should not be used in areas of water accumulation.
2. Use a vitreous tile, with a water absorption level of less than 3%,
when a frost resistant floor is specified in colder climates.
3. Slip-resistant floors should be used in bath and shower areas. Unglazed or glazed tiles with abrasive, textured, or embossed surfaces perform best, although they are more difficult to keep clean. Smaller tiles, with more grout joints or wider grout joints will increase slip resistance.

Ceramic tile is a kiln-fired, natural clay product and is subject to shade variation. Shading is normal. Trim pieces can be off-shade from field tile.

"Crazing" is the appearance of fine surface lines on glazed tile.
Note it does not cause separation or cracking of the entire tile. Crazing is caused by aging, heating and cooling. Since tile is a natural product and reacts to its environment,
this is considered a natural process and part of the beauty of ceramic tile.

Scratching. Most tile used on countertops and vanities is glazed, matte or gloss and resists scratching.
The surface of tile is fired to high-density, so it can be scratched by metal,
leaving marks on the tile surface. Use care while using metal cookware/tools.
Scratches appear more visible on a high gloss finish (as opposed to matte),
and on primary or deep shaded colors.

Normal settling will cause some cracking of the grout, particularly in comers and edges.
Use fill immediately to eliminate dirt build-up and discoloration.
Sealing is recommended about thirty days after the grout is laid. (It needs time to cure.)